The Tianhe-2 (which means Milky Way-2) appeared on the scene in 2012, more than two years ahead of schedule, and leapt into the No. 1 spot. It processes at an astounding 33.9 petaflops, nearly twice the performance of the Titan or Sequoia, and more than 10 times the performance of Tianhe-1A, which held the No. 10 spot in June 2013.
The system runs on a mix of Intel Xeon E5 processors, custom processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors: approximately 3,120,000 cores in total.
Developed by China's National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) and located at the National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou, the system will be used for education and research. It is currently China's only top-10 entry, but the Tianhe-2 gives them bragging rights for sheer processing power in a single machine.
Tianhe-2 runs on a custom version of the Ubuntu Linux operating system called Kylin, which was developed through a partnership between the NUDT, the China Software and Integrated Circuit Promotions Centre (CSIP) and Canonical (creators of Ubuntu). In fact, all of the top 10 supercomputers, and most of the top 500, run some flavor of Linux.
Kylin isn't just for supercomputers. It is a freely available, open-source operating system tailored specifically for Chinese users, and can be downloaded from Ubuntu's site for use on personal computers.