First, it's important to understand the lingo. There's a big difference between Facebook pages and Facebook profiles. Mark Zuckerberg & Co. allow business and fan pages to use varying kinds of analytics that allow operators to monitor page traffic and see where it's coming from. Profiles, which are supposed to serve simply for social functions, don't.
Facebook Insights is the easiest way to get a handle on your business or fan page traffic. Among other metrics, Insights tells users the number of people who like their page, how many people see a post and how many people clicked the post. It's already in the Facebook app directory, so simply search for it within Facebook, and you can have it installed with a couple of clicks. The problem, for those who want to stalk the stalkers, is that the company has imposed some limits intended to make it more difficult to determine precisely who's viewing and clicking your page and clicking your posts. For example, Page Insights are only available to pages with more than 30 likes and only provide demographic info once at least 30 visitors from the demographic have visited the page or post. There's also a 48-hour lag in the information provided, meaning you can't use it to figure out who's looking at your page, say RIGHT NOW.
If you want more full-featured analytics, you're going to have to get a little creative. One place to go for analytics is outside data monitoring sites like Webtrends. Simply set up an account, and Webtrends will return somewhat detailed analytics about the number and type of people viewing your Facebook business or fan page.
With a little finagling, you can also can install the gold standard of Web-tracking services, Google Analytics. This bad boy allows users to get finite data, like date, time and location, about visitors to their pages. First set up a Google Analytics account, and then add a new profile for your Facebook fan or business page. This requires a number of steps to integrate Google Analytics with the particular page. The good news is that Google has been kind enough to provide detailed instructions for doing that, as well as using tracking services on other social networks like Twitter.